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   2016| July-August  | Volume 18 | Issue 83  
    Online since August 26, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population
Johan Paulin, Linus Andersson, Steven Nordin
July-August 2016, 18(83):178-184
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.189244  PMID:27569405
There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.
  4,064 29 -
Before–after field study of effects of wind turbine noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters
Leila Jalali, Philip Bigelow, Mohammad-Reza Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mahmood Gohari, Diane Williams, Steve McColl
July-August 2016, 18(83):194-205
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.189242  PMID:27569407
Wind is considered one of the most advantageous alternatives to fossil energy because of its low operating cost and extensive availability. However, alleged health-related effects of exposure to wind turbine (WT) noise have attracted much public attention and various symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, have been reported by residents living close to wind developments. Prospective cohort study with synchronous measurement of noise and sleep physiologic signals was conducted to explore the possibility of sleep disturbance in people hosting new industrial WTs in Ontario, Canada, using a pre and post-exposure design. Objective and subjective sleep data were collected through polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard diagnostic test, and sleep diary. Sixteen participants were studied before and after WT installation during two consecutive nights in their own bedrooms. Both audible and infrasound noises were also concurrently measured inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (LAeq, LZeq) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. Results obtained from PSG show that sleep parameters were not significantly changed after exposure. However, reported sleep qualities were significantly (P = 0.008) worsened after exposure. Average noise levels during the exposure period were low to moderate and the mean of inside noise levels did not significantly change after exposure. The result of this study based on advanced sleep recording methodology together with extensive noise measurements in an ecologically valid setting cautiously suggests that there are no major changes in the sleep of participants who host new industrial WTs in their community. Further studies with a larger sample size and including comprehensive single-event analyses are warranted.
  3,742 33 -
Sound exposure during outdoor music festivals
Tron V Tronstad, Femke B Gelderblom
July-August 2016, 18(83):220-228
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.189245  PMID:27569410
Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival’s duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization’s recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure.
  3,323 20 -
Occupational noise and ischemic heart disease: A systematic review
Angel M Dzhambov, Donka D Dimitrova
July-August 2016, 18(83):167-177
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.189241  PMID:27569404
Noise exposure might be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Unlike residential exposure, however, evidence for occupational noise is limited. Given that high-quality quantitative synthesis of existing data is highly warranted for occupational safety and policy, we aimed at conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risks of IHD morbidity and mortality because of occupational noise exposure. We carried out a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and on the Internet since April 2, 2015, in English, Spanish, Russian, and Bulgarian. A quality-scoring checklist was developed a priori to assess different sources of methodological bias. A qualitative data synthesis was performed. Conservative assumptions were applied when appropriate. A meta-analysis was not feasible because of unresolvable methodological discrepancies between the studies. On the basis of five studies, there was some evidence to suggest higher risk of IHD among workers exposed to objectively assessed noise >75–80 dB for <20 years (supported by one high, one moderate, and one low quality study, opposed by one high and one moderate quality study). Three moderate and two low quality studies out of six found self-rated exposure to be associated with higher risk of IHD, and only one moderate quality study found no effect. Out of four studies, a higher mortality risk was suggested by one moderate quality study relying on self-rated exposure and one of high-quality study using objective exposure. Sensitivity analyses showed that at higher exposures and in some vulnerable subgroups, such as women, the adverse effects were considerably stronger. Despite methodological discrepancies and limitations of the included studies, occupational noise appeared to be a risk factor for IHD morbidity. Results suggested higher risk for IHD mortality only among vulnerable subgroups. Workers exposed to high occupational noise should be considered at higher overall risk of IHD.
  3,209 27 -
Characterization of tinnitus in different age groups: A retrospective review
Jamil Al-Swiahb, Shi Nae Park
July-August 2016, 18(83):214-219
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.189240  PMID:27569409
Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize tinnitus in affected patients. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records from 470 consecutive patients who visited a tertiary care hospital for evaluation of chronic subjective tinnitus between January 2009 and June 2010 was performed. Patients were divided into three subgroups based on age. Clinical, audiological, and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were analyzed. Results: Of the 470 patients evaluated, 85 were less than 40, 217 between 40 and 60, and 168 above 60 years of age. Most patients were men and complained of unilateral, acute high-pitched tinnitus. Most patients above the age of 40 years complained of loud and annoying tinnitus and had worse stress and severity scores. Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus in older adults is subjectively louder, more annoying, and more distressing than that found in younger patients. We recommend considering age in the patient management plan.
  2,776 26 -
Environmental propagation of noise in mines and nearby villages: A study through noise mapping
Veena D Manwar, Bibhuti B Mandal, Asim K Pal
July-August 2016, 18(83):185-193
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.189246  PMID:27569406
Background: Noise mapping being an established practice in Europe is hardly practiced for noise management in India although it is mandatory in Indian mines as per guidelines of the Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS). As a pilot study, noise mapping was conducted in an opencast mine with three different models; one based on the baseline operating conditions in two shifts (Situation A), and two other virtual situations where either production targets were enhanced by extending working hours to three shifts (Situation B) or only by increased mechanization and not changing the duration of work (Situation C). Methods: Noise sources were categorized as point, line, area, and moving sources. Considering measured power of the sources, specific meteorological and geographical parameters, noise maps were generated using Predictor LimA software. Results: In all three situations, Lden values were 95 dB(A) and 70–80 dB(A) near drill machine and haul roads, respectively. Noise contours were wider in Situation C due to increase in frequency of dumpers. Lden values near Shovel 1 and Shovel 2 under Situation B increased by 5 dB and 3 dB, respectively due to expansion of working hours. In Situation C, noise levels were >82 dB(A) around shovels. Noise levels on both sides of conveyor belts were in the range of 80–85 dB(A) in Situations A and C whereas it was 85–90 dB(A) in Situation B. Near crusher plants, it ranged from 80 to 90 dB(A) in Situations A and C and between 85 and 95 dB(A) in Situation B. In all situations, noise levels near residential areas exceeded the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) limits, i.e., 55 dB(A). Conclusions: For all situations, predicted noise levels exceeded CPCB limits within the mine and nearby residential area. Residential areas near the crusher plants are vulnerable to increased noise propagation. It is recommended to put an acoustic barrier near the crusher plant to attenuate the noise propagation.
  2,588 20 -
Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test
Eugen Gallasch, Reinhard B Raggam, Michael Cik, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Andreas Lackner, Barbara Piber, Egon Marth
July-August 2016, 18(83):206-213
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.189243  PMID:27569408
To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD) and 20 min of rail (RAIL) traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA), a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54) consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only), alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (sBP), total peripheral resistance (TPR), as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP), 0.15–0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF), and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA) were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%), sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL −0.7%, ROAD −0.8%), HF decreased (RAIL −3.4%, ROAD −2.9%), and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%). No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values) combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values) was found at the high-annoyed subgroup.
  2,161 19 -