Home Email this page Print this page Bookmark this page Decrease font size Default font size Increase font size
Noise & Health  
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded68    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 89    

Recommend this journal


  Table of Contents    
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 70  |  Page : 157-165
Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: A systematic review

1 Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2 Department of Health Management, Health Economics and Primary Care, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Click here for correspondence address and email
Date of Web Publication20-Jun-2014

Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

Keywords: Green spaces, noise pollution, psychological buffer

How to cite this article:
Dzhambov AM, Dimitrova DD. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: A systematic review. Noise Health 2014;16:157-65

How to cite this URL:
Dzhambov AM, Dimitrova DD. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: A systematic review. Noise Health [serial online] 2014 [cited 2023 Dec 6];16:157-65. Available from: https://www.noiseandhealth.org/text.asp?2014/16/70/157/134916

  Introduction Top

Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world and approximately 80 million people in the European Union suffer from unacceptable noise levels (65 dB) and over 170 million are exposed to noise levels between 55 and 65 dB. [1] The interest towards environmental noise as a cause for economic losses is growing as it costs approximately 0.2-2% of the gross domestic product in the developed European countries. [2]

Noise levels above 55 dB are considered as important because they disturb the comfort of hearing. Chronic exposure to noise between 65 and 80 dB can cause damage to the hearing function. In addition, traffic noise - the most prominent and common type of urban noise pollution - causes physiological and cognitive alterations, sleep disturbances, psycho-social stress, etc. [3],[4] Noise has a significant effect on quality of life even when it is not loud enough to cause medical or psychological symptoms. [5]

These are the reasons why local authorities are increasingly interested in reducing noise's effects on human health and well-being. Many working solutions are available such as green belts around highways, barriers along railways, green roof installations, double-skin facades, etc. However, these constructions are not only often considered esthetically displeasing by the general population due to blocking the view, but are also costly and provide few other obvious health benefits. On the other hand, if we can design and plan better quality green spaces, they might reduce the general negative reaction to environmental noise. This would be possible because as a unique environmental stressor noise's effects greatly depend on how people perceive it. According to Borsky, dissatisfaction with various components of the environment enhances noise annoyance. [6],[7] This notion is clearly supported by the Report of the Environmental Protection Department in Hksar, which states that one of the factors affecting sleep disturbance and annoyance is "one's perception of the environment, namely, satisfaction with neighborhood environment." [8]

Being an essential feature of residential quality, vegetation has been regarded as a cheaper and more natural material to physically reduce outdoor noise pollution in comparison to concrete, metal, plastic and other man-made materials. [9] The construction of green belts around highways and the incorporation of green spaces in the cities are not new concepts. There are three major ways for vegetation to reduce noise pollution: Diffraction and reflection of sound waves by plant elements; absorption of sound waves and transformation in mechanical vibrations of the plant elements; destructive interference of sound waves. There are some indirect effects of vegetation such as psycho-acoustical effects which are in the scope of environmental hygiene/medicine. [10] Vegetation influences both the physical properties of sounds and the ways in which people perceive, evaluate and respond to sound in different urban settings. [5]

Many noise attenuation studies conclude that some level of noise reduction on the physical level can be achieved through the use of roadside vegetation, [1],[11],[12],[13] or even green roof installations. [14] Some of them investigated the different types of vegetation that helped attenuate noise exposure, [15] while others focused on the phenomenon of "soundscape." [16],[17],[18],[19]

The ultimate goal of noise control is to promote relaxation, satisfaction and well-being in urban residents. [9] As noise reduction on acoustical level greatly depends on the characteristics of vegetation and the design of urban green spaces the exploitation of the psychological role of vegetation as a noise buffer is much preferable. Little body of evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of noise attenuation by urban green spaces on psycho-acoustical level.

Even more, there is a lack of synthetic research on the subject. Borderline topics such as this present an excellent opportunity for an interdisciplinary approach to health promotion by bringing together two seemingly distinct research areas such as environmental hygiene and environmental psychology.

The aim of this paper was to answer the questions "Does interaction with urban vegetation modify the way people perceive environmental noise through buffering its psycho-acoustical effects on health?" and "Does the quality of existing evidence allow making feasible inferences?"

  Methods Top

First, we performed a pilot study, analyzing the publications we found through PubMed and Google search using the keywords "noise" and "vegetation." This process provided an overview of the main features that had to be included in the review and allowed us to prepare a solid background.

Search strategy

We used a systematic review approach. Initial electronic literature search in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed using PubMed and ScienceDirect search engines and the keywords "ruido", "plantas", "espacio verde", "parque", "urban", "green spaces", "vegetation", "greenery", "noise", "people" and "health" in different combinations when appropriate: PubMed - "noise + green spaces" (n = 10), "noise + vegetation" (n = 48), "urban + noise + park" (n = 20); ScienceDirect - "noise + people + psychology + vegetation + green spaces" (n = 220), "noise + people + health + vegetation + green spaces" (n = 913), "noise + people + vegetation + green spaces" (n = 1522), "noise + greenery" (n = 368), "espacio verde + ruido" (n = 60), "ruido + parque" n = (27), "ruido + plantas" (n = 85). The overlapping publications found amongst these results were considered only once. Searches were performed in the period between 25 May and 7 June 2013. Because the topic is generally underexplored no filters were applied. We contacted Assoc. Prof. Atanaska Aleksandrova, MD, PhD as an expert in this field in order to obtain publications in Bulgarian and Russian. We also hand searched the reference lists of the publications selected for quality assessment but we were unable to retrieve the full texts because of the limited access the Library Center of Medical University Plovdiv provided at that moment [Table 1].
Table 1: Studies found after reference lists search

Click here to view

Data abstraction

The data was abstracted in two step process independently by the authors using methodology from Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.6 and personal data extraction forms. [26] Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved with consensus. All experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 were analyzed with restriction to English and Spanish due to lack of sufficient founding for external translator. At the first step, 3273 results were retrieved. At the next step, we hand searched the titles and abstracts and selected the 24 studies that were in the general scope of our review. Their full texts were reviewed by the two authors. To determine the degree of agreement, the Kappa index of inter-observer agreement was calculated. [27] It was 0.6897. After evaluating the full texts, we selected five studies based on inclusion criteria: To deal with the noise buffering effect of urban vegetation via psychological mechanisms. Studies investigating the physics/acoustics of noise attenuation by vegetation, soundscape or psychological noise reduction not directly influenced by vegetation were excluded. We included five studies for the final quality assessment.

Quality assessment

We performed quality assessment with using modified versions of the previously adapted "Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies", [28],[29] of "Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 checklist of information to include when reporting a randomized trial" and of "CONSORT checklist." [30],[31] Two different scales were necessary because of discrepancies in study design. The modification of the "Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies" did not differ significantly from the mentioned adaptation. We simply assigned 1 star to "Interview" as a possible assessment of outcome due to the nature of the surveys analyzed. Our modification of "CONSORT 2010 checklist of information to include when reporting a randomized trial" and of "CONSORT checklist" awarded a maximum of 13 "Yes" per study for all of the following elements: Background; Aim; Methods; Intervention; Outcome; Statistical analysis. The definition that we gave to high quality was 12-13 "Yes," to medium quality-10-11 "Yes" and to low quality-9 "Yes" and below.

The quality of the cross-sectional studies was defined as follows: High (10-9 stars), moderate (7-8 stars), low (6 stars and below). Studies were independently checked by the authors and their evaluations were cross-matched and discussed. The Kappa index for the quality appraisal was 0.5833.

All research designs were examined and separated into two broad categories: Interventional studies and observational studies. Due to the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the designs of the final five studies, we found it inappropriate to undertake quantitative meta-analysis. The latter would result in low statistical power and some analyses like funnel plot would not be reliable. Hohmann et al. cautioned against meta-analyzing and summarizing data from heterogeneous studies. [32] Therefore, a qualitative assessment of evidence level approach was adopted.

  Results Top

Observational studies


Li et al.[33] aimed to study the effects of neighborhood greenery as noise annoyance modifier. Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] examined whether the green-area availability moderated resident's noise responses and whether the potential effect of green-area availability varied depending on access or not to a quiet side of the dwelling. The characteristic of the studies are presented in [Table 2].
Table 2: Characteristics of the observational studies: Population, inclusion criteria, design and outcome

Click here to view

Study populations

Li et al.[33] selected randomly 992 participants from residential estates in Hong Kong. Before the full-scale survey they standardized the design and tools with a trial run. Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] used data from previously utilized questionnaire designed for investigating the effects of having access to a quiet side of dwelling on residents' health and well-being.

An inclusion criterion for their study was high road traffic noise exposures (60-69 dB). The remaining residents were excluded from further analyses. Because of financial constraint Li et al.[33] controlled the range of values for the factors of interest and implemented the following inclusion criteria: Road traffic had to be the major noise source; participants' demographic profile had to be comparable and the greenery had to be in vicinity of the estates, had to be different for each of them and had to be perceived by some but not all of the residents.

In the study of Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström, [34] out of the 500 residents 367 lived in dwellings with access to a quiet side and 133 lived in dwellings with no access to a quiet side. Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] compared the current sample with the excluded sample and found that the excluded sample (<60 dB) were significantly (P < 0.05) older (≥46 years of age = 54% vs. 41% for the excluded and current samples, respectively). There were no differences in sex and sensitivity to noise (P > 0.05). The authors did not expect that the differences between the current and excluded samples would affect the results of the study. Only 688 of the participants in Li et al.'s [33] study provided all the necessary personal data completing the questionnaire and were divided into three groups according to the type of greenery they could perceive from their home. We found no information about cross-checking between respondents and non-respondents.

Study designs

Both studies were cross-sectional questionnaire surveys. Li et al.[33] conducted theirs over the period from October 2008 to October 2009, while Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] , as stated before, used data from previously designed survey. After selection Li et al. [33] asked the participants to complete a specially designed questionnaire comprising two batteries: Socio-demographic profile, noise sensitivity, health status and access to green space views; and annoyance reactions to road traffic over the past year. The 500 participants in Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström's [34] study answered a previously used questionnaire designed to assess adverse health effects of noise and perceptions of soundscapes. For their current study the authors used only the batteries "perceived availability to green areas", "longstanding illness", "sensitivity to noise" and "noise annoyance." To ensure that each group had sufficient sample size for further analyses Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström's [34] examined the possibility to create only two green-area groups by comparing mean scores regarding long-term noise annoyance "at home" and "outdoors close to the dwelling."

Li et al.[33] appraised annoyance reactions to road traffic using two scales recommended by ISO standard 15666 (2003) in order to countercheck the results. Noise levels at the estates were predicted using a validated calculation of road traffic noise method. In the study of Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström's, [34] calculations of traffic noise levels were based on traffic input data and geometrical data of the field site.

Li et al. [33] divided the participants in their study in three groups according to the type of greenery they interacted with, which were homogenous by demographic characteristics. Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] formed two homogenous (P > 0.05) groups: Residents with "poorer" availability to green areas (n = 354) and residents with "better" availability to green areas (n = 146). To validate the construction of these two green-area groups, they examined recent aerial photographs over the study sites and their surroundings and approximately judged the distance between each of the sites and the nearest green area, confirming that their initial definition was correct.

Li et al.[33] analyzed the questionnaire data with an ordered logit model with McFadden's ρ2 value of 0.14 while Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] performed a two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to examine the independent and joint effects of perceived availability to green areas and access to a quiet side of the dwelling on long-term noise annoyance.


Li et al.[33] concluded that the perception of greenery, according to its type, can generally reduce noise annoyance at home. Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] found that residents with "better" access to green areas were significantly less noise annoyed due to road traffic both when being "at home" (P < 0.01) and "outdoors close to the dwelling" (P < 0.001). The results of the study suggested that availability to green areas could buffer the effects of chronic noise exposure on health and well-being.

One of the limitations stated by Li et al. [33] was that the sample was not truly representative of the average in the population due to financial restrictions. For that reason participants' estates were all located in relatively deprived areas of Hong Kong. Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström [34] emphasized that the secondary utilization of data collected for the previous study might have reduced the variation in access to green areas. Furthermore, the cross-sectional nature of the survey did not permit to determine causal sequences between assessed variables.

Interventional studies


Joynt and Kang [35] aimed to indicate to what extent preconceptions held about varying materials used in noise barrier design impacted on perceived noise reduction. They also aimed to determine whether auditory and visual intersensory interaction influenced respondents' perception of noise attenuation by the noise barriers. Maffei et al.[36] analyzed the effect of several barriers on perceived loudness and noise annoyance at different levels and verified if some interaction among the factors at different levels could be considered to be statistically significant by means of ANOVA analysis. A study by Yang et al. [9] focused on the psychological effects (psychological noise reduction) of visual sensations from the natural environment and how psychological noise reduction by means of landscaping can achieve improvements in health benefits and psychological behavior. The characteristics of the studies are presented in [Table 3].
Table 3: Characteristics of the interventional studies: Population, interventions and outcome

Click here to view

Study populations

Joynt and Kang [35] selected a random sample of respondents from the University of Sheffield population through advertising for volunteers. Each volunteer was compensated for their time. Due to restricted time availability and physical spaces, the sample was limited to that which could be assessed during a 2 day period. The opportunity to volunteer was not restricted to students although majority of the participants were students. Maffei et al.[36] selected a sample of participants living next to a railway line as representative of the inhabitants of the area and invited them to participate in the experiment. Like Joynt and Kang, [35] Yang et al. [9] randomly selected students from Zhejiang Forestry University.

Neither of the studies defines inclusion or exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria for Joynt and Kang [35] were not specified and most probably were solely the consent to participate. Maffei et al.[36] did not describe the inclusion criteria as such but they preliminary asked the participants to report normal hearing and normal or corrected to normal vision. Yang et al. [9] did not mention inclusion or exclusion criteria.

The dropout rate of neither Joynt and Kang [35] nor Maffei et al. [36] or Yang et al. [9] was described.

Study designs and interventions

The studies of Joynt and Kang [35] and Maffei et al.[36] had similar designs. Yang et al. [9] also conducted a lab experiment with a general design like of the other experimental studies but did not include barrier noise attenuation assessments. Joynt and Kang [35] preliminary recorded audio-visual data using a video camcorder in locations throughout the United Kingdom and then synchronized the audio and visual sequences, while Maffei et al.[36] recorded audio and video of a train passing at constant speed of 70 km/h and edited it with special software. Yang et al. [9] took videos of a busy road (Nanshan Road, Hangzhou) and the vegetation next to the road. In the study of Joynt and Kang [35] the barriers were selected in order to represent some standard style types commercially available: Concrete, timber, metal, transparent acrylic and a hedgerow of deciduous vegetation, while Maffei et al.[36] used concrete, flaming colored and plant type barrier. Joynt and Kang [35] projected five sequential films to the participants on a large screen and the audio sequence was played on four large speakers on either side and behind the screen. Three tests were performed: First, the predetermined assumptions about barrier attenuation were analyzed with only video playing; second, the perception of noise attenuation by the five standard barrier types with a constant noise stimulus was investigated; finally, the esthetic qualities of each barrier were determined. All three test results were measured with a questionnaire. On the other hand, Maffei et al.[36] assessed the noise-related aspects of barriers with different visual characteristics in an immersive virtual reality laboratory test. The subjects were seated in the middle of an anechoic chamber. A couple of loudspeakers and one subwoofer were calibrated by an artificial dummy head, in order to reproduce the same auditory conditions: The same sound levels and the best fitting of the spectrum at the listener's ear. At the beginning each participant had to fill in a questionnaire. Maffei et al.[36] played six scenarios according to noise and barrier type and at the end of each the participants answered a questionnaire. Yang et al. [9] used videos played through video glasses and recorded sounds like Maffei et al.[36] Their participants also completed a questionnaire prior to beginning of the experiment. Like the two other questionnaires theirs asked about personal characteristics, attitude and noise exposure history of the participants.

Outcome measures and criteria

Joynt and Kang [35] analyzed the preconceptions without audio stimulus, the perceptions with audio and visual stimulus, the influence of preconceptions on the perceptions of each barrier's performance and esthetic influences. The authors measured participants' responses with specially designed questionnaires and performed a series of statistical comparisons including one-way repeated measure ANOVA. Maffei et al.[36] analyzed the barrier type concerning the visibility of the noise source through the screen, the visual aspect of the barrier concerning some esthetic issues and the noise level at the receiver concerning the acoustic performance of the barrier and the magnitude of the sound source. They also used ANOVA and self-report questionnaire. Yang et al. [9] analyzed the subjective emotional evaluation of noise exposure, the perceived noise reduction provided by landscape plants and, unlike the other two studies, chose to register quantitative emotional responses using electroencephalogram (EEG) in addition to the questionnaire evaluation. This was the only study that objectified the outcome.


In Joynt and Kang's [35] study transparent and deciduous vegetation barriers, judged most esthetically pleasing, were judged as the least effective at attenuating noise. In the scenarios with green barrier Maffei et al.[36] found that the participants seemed to arouse less noise annoyance. Nevertheless, this result was not very conclusive. Yang et al. [9] conclude that both objective and subjective methodologies employed indicated that plants can induce psychological noise reduction.

Only Yang et al. [9] clearly stated that a limitation of their study was the inclusion only of students at Zhejiang Forestry University, which constitutes a biased sample of subjects. The citizens that suffer the most from noisy urban environments are those that are dwelling outside of the university and range from children to the elderly, particularly those who enjoy recreational activities in street parks and those living close to main roads. Joynt and Kang 35] indirectly mentioned that in future studies the sample should be more representative of the studied population.

  Discussion Top

The quality of the observational studies was assessed according to the modified checklist for cross-sectional studies [Table 4].
Table 4: Quality assessment of the observational studies

Click here to view

The study of Li et al.[33] scored 7 stars out of 10 according to our modification of the "Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale" and hence, we defined it as of moderate quality. First, information about the comparability between people who completed the questionnaire and the non-respondents was not reported. Second, as stated by the authors, their study was not representative and we found no information that the sample size was justified by a preliminary method for determining the necessary number of participants.

Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström's [34] study scored the maximum of 10 stars and was classified as high quality. We unanimously established this given the justification of the sample size, the described comparison between included and excluded participants and the assessment of the outcome through record linkage, all in contrast to the study of Li et al.[33]

The quality of the interventional studies was assessed according to the modified checklist for interventional studies [Table 5].
Table 5: Quality assessment of the interventional studies

Click here to view

According to our modification of "CONSORT 2010 checklist of information to include when reporting a randomized trial" and of "CONSORT checklist", the studies of Joynt and Kang [35] and Yang et al. [9] scored 10 out of 13 "Yes" and were classified as of moderate quality. They did not specify inclusion/exclusion criteria nor described the dropout rate. Joynt and Kang [35] also stated that due to restricted time availability and physical spaces, the sample was limited. The study of Maffei et al.[36] also scored 10 out of 13 "Yes." They neither described the dropout rate nor inclusion/exclusion criteria. Their sample was representative unlike that of the other two studies but it was not randomly selected.

We have to point out a possible bias. The studies of Joynt and Kang [35] and Yang et al. [9] included participants regardless of noise exposure from two Universities. The other three studies, on the other hand, purposely assessed the buffering effects of vegetation in individuals exposed to chronic noise pollution: In the studies of Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström's [34] and Li et al. [33] noise was above 60 dB and the participants in the experiment of Maffei et al.[36] lived close to a railway line.

We present some of the limitations of our review. Probably the most prominent limitation is the limited number of studies which, on one hand, does not allow us to make firm inferences, but on the other only reiterates the necessity for further research. It was beyond the scope of the review to locate unpublished research or grey literature. Moreover, due to the limited full text access that our University provided, we were also unable to retrieve the studies from the hand searching of reference lists. However, having reviewed the abstracts of these articles and having in mind that none of them was published in the last 10 years, it is our strong believe that their non-inclusion in the full text review does not markedly impair the quality of our research, as they would have been eliminated anyway. We also had initial disagreement about the validity of the procedure for noise pollution measurement described by Gidlöf-Gunnarsson and Öhrström's [34] , which did not influence the final quality appraisal; we also disagreed on the quality of the study of Joynt and Kang, [35] the one that found vegetation ineffective as a noise buffer: Donka Dimitrova evaluated it of low quality because of inadequate recruitment [Table 5]. Last, we were unable to hire a translator in order to extend our search to foreign languages other than English, Spanish and Russian.

  Conclusions Top

Due to the disparities between the studies such as inclusion and exclusion criteria, population characteristics, design, etc., firm conclusions cannot be reached regarding the effects of green spaces as a psychological buffer for noise pollution. We found consistent evidence among the observational studies about the attenuation effects of vegetation: The two cross-sectional (one high quality and one moderate quality) studies found that green areas could buffer the effects of chronic noise exposure on annoyance responses. On the other hand, the experimental studies presented conflicting evidence: Joynt and Kang [35] concluded that vegetation did not effectively reduce perception of noise, Maffei et al.[36] observed some effect but their results were inconclusive and Yang et al. [9] objectively proved that the buffering effect of vegetation was significant.

Consistent with the epidemiological data we suggest that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise which was strongly supported with an EEG test in one of the experimental studies. In fact, only the study of Joynt and Kang [35] found vegetation ineffective and, as stated before, we had initial disagreement on one element of its design that would have lowered its quality to "low."

Environmental esthetics is an important feature of its quality, whose effects should be quantified. It is plausible that esthetics or more generally speaking the visual aspects of the environment and its elements can modify noise sensitivity, annoyance and hence health outcomes. Stress levels, for example, are lower when people interact with visually pleasing landscapes which makes noise more tolerable. [5] The time spent in green spaces, their proximity, physical and geomorphological characteristics should be measured.

The evidence summarized in this systematic review, however, needs to be interpreted with caution because of the fact that only five relevant studies were identified and because of their quality (multiple moderate quality and only one high quality study).

As we are unaware of a previous systematic review on the topic, we believe that ours fills a gap in the literature and presents a critical evaluation that could help researchers to further illuminate the adequate implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution. Further experimental research is required using validated tools (questionnaires and noise exposure assessment equipment) and standardized designs.

  References Top

1.Ec.europa.eu. European Community. The green paper on future noise policy, 1996. Available from: http://www.ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/greenpap.htm. [Last cited on 2013 Jun 03].  Back to cited text no. 1
2.WHO. Prevention of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. WHO-PDH Informal Consultation Report, Geneva; 1997. Available from: http://www.who.int/pbd/deafness/en/noise.pdf. [Last cited on 2014 Feb 19].  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Babisch W, Beule B, Schust M, Kersten N, Ising H. Traffic noise and risk of myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 2005;16:33-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Ohrström E. Longitudinal surveys on effects of changes in road traffic noise-annoyance, activity disturbances, and psycho-social well-being. J Acoust Soc Am 2004;115:719-29.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Anderson LM, Mulligan BE, Goodman LS. Effects of vegetation on human response to sound. J Arboriculture 1984;10:45-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Borsky PN. Effects of noise on community behaviour. In: Ward WD, Frick JE, editors. Noise as a Public Health Hazard. Washington, DC: American Speech and Hearing Association; 1969.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Borsky PN. Research on community response to noise since 1973. In: Tobias JV, Jansen G, Ward WD, editors. Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem. Rockville, Maryland: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association; 1980.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Environmental Protection Department, Hksar Government. Final report for the provision of service for the study of health effects of transportation noise in Hong Kong. Available from: http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/noise/studyrpts/files/study_health_effects.pdf. [Last cited on 2014 Jan 14].  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Yang F, Bao ZY, Zhu ZJ. An assessment of psychological noise reduction by landscape plants. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8:1032-48.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Van Renterghem T, Botteldooren D, Verheyen K. Road traffic noise shielding by vegetation belts of limited depth. J Sound Vib 2012;311:2404-25.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Borthwick JO, Reethof G, McDaniel OH, Carlson DE. Attenuation of highway noise by narrow forest belts. J Acoust Soc Am 1977;62:42.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Ozer S, Irmak MA, Yilmaz H. Determination of roadside noise reduction effectiveness of Pinus sylvestris L. and Populus nigra L. in Erzurum, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 2008;144:191-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Fang CF, Ling DL. Guidance for noise reduction provided by tree belts. Landscape Urban Plan 2005;71:29-34.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Van Renterghem T, Botteldooren D. Reducing the acoustical façade from road traffic with green roofs. Build Environ 2009;44:1081-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Pudjowati UR, Yanuwiyadi B, Sulistiono R, Suyadi. Estimation of noise reduction by different vegetation type as a noise barrier: A survey in highway along Waru - Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia. Research Inventy: International Journal Of Engineering And Science 2013;2:20-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Gidlöf-Gunnarsson A, Öhrström E, Ögren M. Noise annoyance and restoration in different courtyard settings: Laboratory experiments on audio-visual interactions. Inter-Noise 2007, 28-31 August 2007, Istanbul, Turkey. Available from: http://www.ljudlandskap.acoustics.nu/downloads/publikationer/ljudlandskap/papers_in2007/Noise_annoyance.pdf. [Last cited on 2013 Jun 03].  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Szeremeta B, Zannin PH. Analysis and evaluation of soundscapes in public parks through interviews and measurement of noise. Sci Total Environ 2009;407:6143-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Tse MS, Chau CK, Choy YS, Tsui WK, Chan CN, Tang SK. Perception of urban park soundscape. J Acoust Soc Am 2012;131:2762-71.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Veisten K, Smyrnova Y, Klæboe R, Hornikx M, Mosslemi M, Kang J. Valuation of green walls and green roofs as soundscape measures: Including monetised amenity values together with noise-attenuation values in a cost-benefit analysis of a green wall affecting courtyards. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012;9:3770-88.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Langdon J. Noise nuisance caused by road traffic in residential areas. Part I. J Sound Vib 1976;3:243-63.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Kragh J. Road traffic noise attenuation by belts of trees. J Sound Vib 1981;74:235-41.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Kastka J, Noack R. On the interaction of sensory experience, causal attributive cognitions and visual context parameters in noise annoyance. Dev Toxicol Environ Sci 1987;15:345-62.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Van Dominick N, Schillemans L. Environmental integration of measures to reduce railway noise in the Brussels capital region. J Sound Vib 2003;267:419-29.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Viollon S, Lavandier C, Drake C. Influence of visual setting on sound rating in an urban environment. Appl Acoust 2002;63:493-511.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Watts G, Chinn L, Godfrey N. The effects of vegetation on the perception of traffic noise. Appl Acoust 1999;56:39-56.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.6. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/sites/default/files/uploads/Handbook4.2.6Sep2006.pdf. [Last cited on 2013 Apr 04].  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Kappa as a measure of concordance in categorical sorting. Available from: http://vassarstats.net/kappa.html. [Last cited on 2013 Jun 05].  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Herzog R, Álvarez-Pasquin JM, Díaz C, Del Barrio JL, Estrada JM, Gil A. Are healthcare workers′ intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? A systematic review. BMC Public Health 2013;13:154.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Wells G, Shea B, O′Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analysis. Available from: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/nosgen.pdf. [Last cited on 2013 Jun 06].  Back to cited text no. 29
30.CONSORT 2010 checklist of information to include when reporting a randomized trial. Available from: http://www.google.bg/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&sqi=2&ved=0CCgQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.consort-statement.org%2Findex.aspx%3Fo%3D2965&ei=HjuUYyLOojvsgbNloGwAw&usg=AFQjCNFN6eTkZuZQQF7o061SA1-zUtr92g&bvm=bv.47380653,bs.1,d.Yms. [Last cited on 2013 Jun 05].  Back to cited text no. 30
31.Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, Egger M, Davidoff F, Elbourne D, et al. The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: Explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:663-94.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Hohmann C, Grabenhenrich L, de Kluizenaar Y, Tischer C, Heinrich J, Chen CM, et al. Health effects of chronic noise exposure in pregnancy and childhood: A systematic review initiated by ENRIECO. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2013;216:217-29.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Li HN, Chau CK, Tang SK. Can surrounding greenery reduce noise annoyance at home? Sci Total Environ 2010;408:4376-84.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Gidlöf-Gunnarsson A, Öhrström E. Noise and well-being in urban residential environments: The potential role of perceived availability to nearby green areas. Landsc Urban Plan 2007;83:115-26.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Joynt JL, Kang J. The influence of preconceptions on perceived sound reduction by environmental noise barriers. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:4368-75.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Maffei L, Masullo M, Aletta F, Di Gabriele M. The influence of visual characteristics of barriers on railway noise perception. Sci Total Environ 2013;445-6:41-7.  Back to cited text no. 36

Correspondence Address:
Angel Mario Dzhambov
MMSc student, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, No. 15-A, "Vasil Aprilov" Blvd., 4002 Plovdiv
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1463-1741.134916

Rights and Permissions


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]

This article has been cited by
1 A meta-analysis on plant volatile organic compound emissions of different plant species and responses to environmental stress
Xinxin Bao, Weiqi Zhou, Linli Xu, Zhong Zheng
Environmental Pollution. 2023; 318: 120886
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Gene-environment interaction in the association of residential greenness and 25(OH) vitamin D
Elisabeth Thiering, Iana Markevych, Sara Kress, Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Hicran Altug, Sibylle Koletzko, Carl-Peter Bauer, Andrea von Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Gunda Herberth, Tamara Schikowski, Joachim Heinrich, Marie Standl
Environmental Pollution. 2023; : 121519
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Association between greenness and cardiovascular risk factors: Results from a large cohort study in Thailand
Kanawat Paoin, Chanathip Pharino, Arthit Phosri, Kayo Ueda, Xerxes Tesoro Seposo, Matthew Kelly, Sam-ang Seubsman, Adrian Sleigh
Environmental Research. 2023; 220: 115215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 How can plant-enriched natural environments benefit human health: a narrative review of relevant theories
Hansen Li, Guodong Zhang
International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 2023; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Restoration in mental health after visiting urban green spaces, who is most affected? Comparison between good/poor mental health in four European cities
Alessia Grigoletto, Stefania Toselli, Wilma Zijlema, Sandra Marquez, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Grazuleviciene, Magdalena Van de Berg, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen
Environmental Research. 2023; : 115397
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Planning for green infrastructure based on integration of multi-driving factors: A case study in pilot site of sponge city
Xinyu Dong, Yanmei Ye, Runjia Yang, Xiaoya Li
Sustainable Cities and Society. 2023; 93: 104549
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Why might urban tree canopy reduce dementia risk? A causal mediation analysis of 109,688 adults with 11 years of hospital and mortality records
Thomas Astell-Burt, Michael. A. Navakatikyan, Xiaoqi Feng
Health & Place. 2023; 82: 103028
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 The assessment of soundscape quality in historic urban parks: A case study of El-Goli Park of Tabriz, Iran
Negar Mohammadzadeh, Rahmat Mohammadzadeh
Noise & Vibration Worldwide. 2023; : 0957456523
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Visiting nature is associated with lower socioeconomic inequalities in well-being in Wales
Joanne K. Garrett, Francis M. Rowney, Mathew P. White, Rebecca Lovell, Rich J. Fry, Ashley Akbari, Rebecca Geary, Ronan A. Lyons, Amy Mizen, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Chrissie Parker, Jiao Song, Gareth Stratton, Daniel A. Thompson, Alan Watkins, James White, Susan A. Williams, Sarah E. Rodgers, Benedict W. Wheeler
Scientific Reports. 2023; 13(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Evaluating simulated visible greenness in urban landscapes: An examination of a midsize U.S. city
Jingjing Yan, Reza Naghedi, Xiao Huang, Siqin Wang, Junyu Lu, Yang Xu
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2023; 87: 128060
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Towards a Fairer Green city: measuring unfairness in daily accessible greenery in Chengdu’s Central city
Jiaxin Zhang, Jinyu Hu, Xinyu Zhang, Yunqin Li, Jingyong Huang
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Green–blue space exposure changes and impact on individual-level well-being and mental health: a population-wide dynamic longitudinal panel study with linked survey data
Rebecca S Geary, Daniel A Thompson, Joanne K Garrett, Amy Mizen, Francis M Rowney, Jiao Song, Mathew P White, Rebecca Lovell, Alan Watkins, Ronan A Lyons, Susan Williams, Gareth Stratton, Ashley Akbari, Sarah C Parker, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, James White, Benedict W Wheeler, Richard Fry, Dialechti Tsimpida, Sarah E Rodgers
Public Health Research. 2023; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Toward a comprehensive understanding of eye-level urban greenness: a systematic review
Jingjing Yan, Xiao Huang, Siqin Wang, Yiyi He, Xiao Li, Alexander Hohl, Xiaojiang Li, Mohamed Aly, Beiyu Lin
International Journal of Digital Earth. 2023; 16(2): 4769
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Urban Itineraries with Smartphones to Promote an Improvement in Environmental Awareness among Secondary School Students
Juan-Francisco Álvarez-Herrero
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(3): 2009
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 The Association between Physical Environment and Externalising Problems in Typically Developing and Neurodiverse Children and Young People: A Narrative Review
Alister Baird, Bridget Candy, Eirini Flouri, Nick Tyler, Angela Hassiotis
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(3): 2549
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Assessing Relativeness in the Provision of Urban Ecosystem Services: Better Comparison Methods for Improved Well-Being
Goran Krsnik, Sonia Reyes-Paecke, Keith M. Reynolds, Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo, José Ramón González Olabarria
Land. 2023; 12(5): 1088
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Multi-Scale Effects of Landscape Pattern on Soundscape Perception in Residential Green Spaces
Jiang Liu, Yi-Jun Huang, Zhu Chen, Xin-Chen Hong
Forests. 2023; 14(12): 2323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Reported evidence of greenness co-benefits on health, climate change mitigation, and adaptation: a systematic review of the literature
Pelin Kinay, John S Ji
Environmental Research: Climate. 2022; 1(1): 012002
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Potential mutual efforts of landscape factors to improve residential soundscapes in compact urban cities
Yoshimi Hasegawa, Siu-Kit Lau, Chi Kwan Chau
Landscape and Urban Planning. 2022; 227: 104534
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Research on spatiotemporal variation characteristics of soundscapes in a newly established suburban forest park
Qi Bian, Cheng Wang, Zhenkai Sun, Luqin Yin, Shasha Jiang, He Cheng, Yilin Zhao
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2022; : 127766
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Soundscape Assessment of Green and Blue Infrastructures
Yalcin Yildirim, Merve Dilman, Volkan Muftuoglu, Sara Demir
Urban Science. 2022; 6(1): 22
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Perceived Qualities, Visitation and Felt Benefits of Preferred Nature Spaces during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Australia: A Nationally-Representative Cross-Sectional Study of 2940 Adults
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
Land. 2022; 11(6): 904
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Physical Activity Behavior, Motivation and Active Commuting: Relationships with the Use of Green Spaces in Italy
Alessia Grigoletto, Alberto Loi, Pasqualino Maietta Latessa, Sofia Marini, Natascia Rinaldo, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Luciana Zaccagni, Stefania Toselli
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(15): 9248
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Healthy Environments: Understanding Perceptions of Underrepresented Communities in the United Kingdom
Lily F. Roberts, Olivia Lounsbury, Veronica Awuzudike, Neil Jennings, Emma L. Lawrance
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(15): 9643
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Impact of urban green space on self-rated health: Evidence from Beijing
Dongsheng Zhan, Qianyun Zhang, Mei-Po Kwan, Jian Liu, Bochuan Zhan, Wenzhong Zhang
Frontiers in Public Health. 2022; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Seismic Composite Metamaterial: A Review
Al-Shami Qahtan, Jiankun Huang, Mugahed Amran, Diyar N. Qader, Roman Fediuk, Al-Dhabir Wael
Journal of Composites Science. 2022; 6(11): 348
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Better Forests, Better Cities
Sarah Jane Wilson, Edith Juno, John-Rob Pool, Sabin Ray, Mack Phillips, Scott Francisco, Sophie McCallum
World Resources Institute. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Impacts of Urban Blue-Green Space on Residents’ Health: A Bibliometric Review
Kun Wang, Zhihao Sun, Meng Cai, Lingbo Liu, Hao Wu, Zhenghong Peng
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(23): 16192
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Comprehensive audio-visual environmental effects on residential soundscapes and satisfaction: Partial least square structural equation modeling approach
Yoshimi Hasegawa, Siu-Kit Lau
Landscape and Urban Planning. 2022; 220: 104351
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 The role of physical environmental characteristics and intellectual disability in conduct problem trajectories across childhood: A population-based Cohort study
Alister Baird, Efstathios Papachristou, Angela Hassiotis, Eirini Flouri
Environmental Research. 2022; : 112837
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Spatial resolution of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and greenness exposure misclassification in an urban cohort
Raquel B. Jimenez, Kevin J. Lane, Lucy R. Hutyra, M. Patricia Fabian
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Sustainability performance by ten representative intelligent Façade technologies: A systematic review
Saeid Habibi, Oriol Pons Valladares, Diana Maritza Peña
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments. 2022; 52: 102001
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Mortality risk associated with greenness, air pollution, and physical activity in a representative U.S. cohort
Carver J. Coleman, Ray A. Yeager, Zachari A. Pond, Daniel W. Riggs, Aruni Bhatnagar, C. Arden Pope
Science of The Total Environment. 2022; 824: 153848
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Laminated triboelectric acoustic energy harvester based on electrospun nanofiber towards real-time noise decibel monitoring
Wenkai Xu, Jiangtao Guo, Haiyang Wen, Xianghe Meng, Hongxin Hong, Jingbo Yuan, Jiaan Gao, Dingyu Liu, Qing Ran, Yudi Wang, Jialong Duan, Qunwei Tang, Xiya Yang
Nano Energy. 2022; : 107348
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 A Systematic Review of the Effects of Urban Living on Suicidality and Self-Harm in the UK and Ireland
Rose-Marie Satherley, Cassie M. Hazell, Christina J. Jones, Paul Hanna
Journal of Urban Health. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Associations of residential greenness, ambient air pollution, biological sex, and glucocorticoids levels in rural China
Juan Wang, Gongbo Chen, Jian Hou, Dandan Wei, Pengling Liu, Luting Nie, Keliang Fan, Lulu Wang, Qingqing Xu, Yu Song, Mian Wang, Wenqian Huo, Tao Jing, Wenjie Li, Yuming Guo, Chongjian Wang, Zhenxing Mao
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2022; 242: 113945
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Types, sources, socioeconomic impacts, and control strategies of environmental noise: a review
Zia Ur Rahman Farooqi, Iftikhar Ahmad, Allah Ditta, Predrag Ilic, Muhammad Amin, Abdul Basit Naveed, Aadil Gulzar
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds from urban green spaces in the six core districts of Beijing based on a new satellite dataset
Xin Li, Wenjing Chen, Hanyu Zhang, Tao Xue, Yuanwei Zhong, Min Qi, Xianbao Shen, Zhiliang Yao
Environmental Pollution. 2022; : 119672
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Moving towards a multidimensional dynamic approach to nature and health: A bioavailability perspective
Rachel C. Sumner, Marica Cassarino, Samantha Dockray, Annalisa Setti, Diane M. Crone
People and Nature. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Quality of urban green spaces influences residents’ use of these spaces, physical activity, and overweight/obesity
Pablo Knobel, Roser Maneja, Xavier Bartoll, Lucia Alonso, Mariska Bauwelinck, Antonia Valentin, Wilma Zijlema, Carme Borrell, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Payam Dadvand
Environmental Pollution. 2021; 271: 116393
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Greener neighbourhoods, healthier birth outcomes? Evidence from Australia
Selin Akaraci, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Suesse, Bin Jalaludin, Thomas Astell-Burt
Environmental Pollution. 2021; 278: 116814
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Nowhere to Play: Available Open and Green Space in Greater London Schools
Niloofar Shoari, Majid Ezzati, Yvonne G Doyle, Ingrid Wolfe, Michael Brauer, James Bennett, Daniela Fecht
Journal of Urban Health. 2021; 98(3): 375
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Greenness, air pollution, and mortality risk: A U.S. cohort study of cancer patients and survivors
Carver J. Coleman, Ray A. Yeager, Daniel W. Riggs, Nathan C. Coleman, George R. Garcia, Aruni Bhatnagar, C. Arden Pope
Environment International. 2021; 157: 106797
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Moving beyond habitat analogs: Optimizing green roofs for a balance of ecosystem services
Anna G. Droz, Reid R. Coffman, Taylor G. Fulton, Christopher B. Blackwood
Ecological Engineering. 2021; 173: 106422
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Permeability of the city – Physical barriers of and in urban green spaces in the city of Halle, Germany
Anne Barber, Dagmar Haase, Manuel Wolff
Ecological Indicators. 2021; 125: 107555
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Differences in Perceptions of the Urban Acoustic Environment in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
María Teresa Baquero Larriva, Ester Higueras García
Journal of Population Ageing. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Impact of environmental changes on Dermatology
Vidal Haddad Junior, Adriana Lúcia Mendes, Carolina Chrusciak Talhari, Hélio Amante Miot
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia. 2021; 96(2): 210
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Urban greenness and survival in lung cancer patients: A registry-based cohort study in Beijing
Lei Yang, Fuyu Guo, Ning Wang, Shuo Liu, Xi Zhang, Huichao Li, Qingyu Li, Tao Xue, Qingyang Xiao, Xin Li, Hengyi Liu, Mingkun Tong, Pengfei Li, Aiguo Ren, Jiafu Ji
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021; 228: 113042
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 How can citizen science advance environmental justice? Exploring the noise paradox through sense of place
Brittany Carson, Caren B. Cooper, Lincoln R. Larson, Louie Rivers
Cities & Health. 2021; 5(1-2): 33
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Effect of noise on perception of residents nearby Commuter Line Rails regarding non-auditory annoyance
Humatul Islam, Hayati S Hasibuan, Indra Lestari
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021; 716(1): 012069
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 A synthesis of health benefits of natural sounds and their distribution in national parks
Rachel T. Buxton, Amber L. Pearson, Claudia Allou, Kurt Fristrup, George Wittemyer
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2021; 118(14): e201309711
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Advancing urban mental health research: from complexity science to actionable targets for intervention
Junus M van der Wal, Claudia D van Borkulo, Marie K Deserno, Josefien J F Breedvelt, Mike Lees, John C Lokman, Denny Borsboom, Damiaan Denys, Ruth J van Holst, Marten P Smidt, Karien Stronks, Paul J Lucassen, Julia C M van Weert, Peter M A Sloot, Claudi L Bockting, Reinout W Wiers
The Lancet Psychiatry. 2021; 8(11): 991
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Compound environmental impact of urban mitigation strategies: Co-benefits, trade-offs, and unintended consequence
Zhi-Hua Wang
Sustainable Cities and Society. 2021; 75: 103284
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Exploring uncharted territory: Do urban greenspaces support mental health in low- and middle-income countries?
Maximilian Nawrath, Solène Guenat, Helen Elsey, Martin Dallimer
Environmental Research. 2021; 194: 110625
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Impact of residential greenness on myocardial infarction in population with diabetes: A sex-dependent association?
Anna Ponjoan, Jordi Blanch, Lia Alves-Cabratosa, Ruth Martí-Lluch, Marc Comas-Cufí, Marta Cirach, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, María del Mar Garcia-Gil, Rafel Ramos
Environmental Research. 2021; : 112449
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Is urban green space associated with lower mental healthcare expenditure?
Thomas Astell-Burt, Michael Navakatikyan, Simon Eckermann, Maree Hackett, Xiaoqi Feng
Social Science & Medicine. 2021; : 114503
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 An improved service quality measurement model for soundscape assessment in urban public open spaces
Rui Li, Dayi Ou, Sensen Pan
Indoor and Built Environment. 2021; 30(7): 985
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Audiovisual Bimodal and Interactive Effects for Soundscape Design of the Indoor Environments: A Systematic Review
Yoshimi Hasegawa, Siu-Kit Lau
Sustainability. 2021; 13(1): 339
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Deciphering the Link Between Mental Health and Green Space in Shenzhen, China: The Mediating Impact of Residents' Satisfaction
Yuhan Qiao, Zini Chen, Yuqing Chen, Tianxiang Zheng
Frontiers in Public Health. 2021; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Impact of Different Types of Physical Activity in Green Urban Space on Adult Health and Behaviors: A Systematic Review
Alessia Grigoletto, Mario Mauro, Pasqualino Maietta Latessa, Vincenzo Iannuzzi, Davide Gori, Francesco Campa, Gianpiero Greco, Stefania Toselli
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education. 2021; 11(1): 263
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Which Risk Factors Matter More for Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic? An Application Approach of Gradient Boosting Decision Trees
Yiyi Chen, Ye Liu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(11): 5879
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Attitudes towards Green Urban Space: A Case Study of Two Italian Regions
Alessia Grigoletto, Mario Mauro, Francesco Campa, Alberto Loi, Maria Cristina Zambon, Marzia Bettocchi, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Laura Bragonzoni, Pasqualino Maietta Latessa, Stefania Toselli
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12): 6442
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 How Does Urban Green Space Impact Residents’ Mental Health: A Literature Review of Mediators
Kaili Chen, Tianzheng Zhang, Fangyuan Liu, Yingjie Zhang, Yan Song
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22): 11746
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Effect of Noise on Sleep and Autonomic Activity in Children according to Source
Jeonghwan Lee, Jangho Park, Jukab Lee, Joon-Ho Ahn, Chang Sun Sim, Kukju Kweon, Hyo-Won Kim
Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2021; 36(37)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Development and Assessment of a Web-Based National Spatial Data Infrastructure for Nature-Based Solutions and Their Social, Hydrological, Ecological, and Environmental Co-Benefits
Cyndi V. Castro, Hanadi S. Rifai
Sustainability. 2021; 13(19): 11018
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 The Synergy of Living and Water Wall in Indoor Environment—Case Study in City of Brno, Czech Republic
Katarina Cakyova, Marian Vertal, Jan Vystrcil, Ondrej Nespesny, David Beckovsky, Ales Rubina, Jan Pencik, Zuzana Vranayova
Sustainability. 2021; 13(21): 11649
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Soundscape components, perceptions, and EEG reactions in typical mountainous urban parks
Heng Li, Hui Xie, George Woodward
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2021; 64: 127269
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Effects of Evocative Audio-Visual Installations on the Restorativeness in Urban Parks
Massimiliano Masullo, Luigi Maffei, Aniello Pascale, Vincenzo Paolo Senese, Simona De Stefano, Chi Kwan Chau
Sustainability. 2021; 13(15): 8328
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Effect of Lane Narrowing Implemented on an Urban Dual Carriageway on Speed Reduction and Acoustic Environment
Alicja Barbara Solowczuk, Dominik Kacprzak
Buildings. 2021; 12(1): 31
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Effect of Perceived Accessibility to Open Spaces on Social Inequalities in Health: A Case Study in Osaka Prefecture, Japan
Shinya Yasumoto, Tomoki Nakaya
Japanese Journal of Human Geography. 2021; 73(4): 445
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Urban green space and health in low and middle-income countries: A critical review
Faysal Kabir Shuvo, Xiaoqi Feng, Selin Akaraci, Thomas Astell-Burt
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2020; 52: 126662
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Associations and effect modification between transportation noise, self-reported response to noise and the wider determinants of health: A narrative synthesis of the literature
Eulalia Peris, Benjamin Fenech
Science of The Total Environment. 2020; 748: 141040
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 The Impact of Airport Proximity on Single-Family House Prices—Evidence from Poland
Miroslaw Belej, Radoslaw Cellmer, Michal Gluszak
Sustainability. 2020; 12(19): 7928
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 The Impact of Regeneration and Climate Adaptations of Urban Green–Blue Assets on All-Cause Mortality: A 17-Year Longitudinal Study
Zoë Tieges, Duncan McGregor, Michail Georgiou, Niamh Smith, Josie Saunders, Richard Millar, Gordon Morison, Sebastien Chastin
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(12): 4577
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 The Effects of Workplace Nature-Based Interventions on the Mental Health and Well-Being of Employees: A Systematic Review
Susan Gritzka, Tadhg E. MacIntyre, Denise Dörfel, Jordan L. Baker-Blanc, Giovanna Calogiuri
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Time-Series Prediction of Environmental Noise for Urban IoT Based on Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network
Xueqi Zhang, Meng Zhao, Rencai Dong
Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(3): 1144
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Historical Cloisters and Courtyards as Quiet Areas
Massimiliano Masullo, Francesca Castanò, Roxana Adina Toma, Luigi Maffei
Sustainability. 2020; 12(7): 2887
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Outdoor Recreation Participation in Istanbul, Turkey: An Investigation of Frequency, Length, Travel Time and Activities
Meryem Hayir-Kanat, Jürgen Breuste
Sustainability. 2020; 12(2): 741
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Impact of Residential Green Space on Sleep Quality and Sufficiency in Children and Adolescents Residing in Australia and Germany
Xiaoqi Feng, Claudia Flexeder, Iana Markevych, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Tamara Schikowski, Sibylle Koletzko, Gunda Herberth, Carl-Peter Bauer, Andrea von Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Thomas Astell-Burt
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(13): 4894
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Indoor Sound Pressure Level and Associated Physical Health Symptoms in Occupants within a Students’ Housing Neighbourhood in Southwest Nigeria
B. A. Orola
Nigerian Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology. 2020; 4(1): 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Association of greenspace exposure with telomere length in preschool children
Mohammad Miri, Paula de Prado-Bert, Ahmad Alahabadi, Moslem Lari Najafi, Abolfazl Rad, Alireza Moslem, Hamideh Ebrahimi Aval, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Mariona Bustamante, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi, Tim Nawrot, Jordi Sunyer, Payam Dadvand
Environmental Pollution. 2020; 266: 115228
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Green and blue spaces and physical functioning in older adults: Longitudinal analyses of the Whitehall II study
Carmen de Keijzer, Cathryn Tonne, Séverine Sabia, Xavier Basagaña, Antònia Valentín, Archana Singh-Manoux, Josep Maria Antó, Jordi Alonso, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer, Payam Dadvand
Environment International. 2019; 122: 346
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 An Update of the Literature Supporting the Well-Being Benefits of Plants: Part 3 - Social Benefits
Charles R. Hall, Melinda J. Knuth
Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 2019; 37(4): 136
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Urban natural environments and motor development in early life
Nadja Kabisch, Lucia Alonso, Payam Dadvand, Matilda van den Bosch
Environmental Research. 2019; 179: 108774
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 A Transdisciplinary Approach for the Validation of Neighborhood Landscape Design Guidelines
Yun Hye Hwang, Puay Yok Tan, Agnieszka Olszewska-Guizzo
Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 2019; 145(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Born to be Wise: a population registry data linkage protocol to assess the impact of modifiable early-life environmental exposures on the health and development of children
Matilda van den Bosch, Michael Brauer, Rick Burnett, Hugh W Davies, Zoe Davis, Martin Guhn, Ingrid Jarvis, Lorien Nesbitt, Tim Oberlander, Emily Rugel, Hind Sbihi, Jason G Su, Michael Jerrett
BMJ Open. 2018; 8(12): e026954
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Consideration of urban green space in impact assessments for health
Thomas B. Fischer, Urmila Jha-Thakur, Peter Fawcett, Sarah Clement, Samuel Hayes, Julia Nowacki
Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal. 2018; 36(1): 32
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Green space and pregnancy outcomes: Evidence from Growing Up in New Zealand
Vikram Nichani, Kim Dirks, Bruce Burns, Amy Bird, Susan Morton, Cameron Grant
Health & Place. 2017; 46: 21
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Association between residential greenness and birth weight: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Angel M. Dzhambov,Donka D. Dimitrova,Elena D. Dimitrakova
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]