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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 92  |  Page : 16--22

Examination of previously published data to identify patterns in the social representation of “Loud music” in young adults across countries

1 Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas; The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping; Audiology India, Mysore, Karnataka; Department of Speech and Hearing, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, USA
2 Centre for Speech Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales; Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, United Kingdom
3 Centre for Speech Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
4 LERASS Laboratory, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Correspondence Address:
Fei Zhao
Centre for Speech Language Therapy and Hearing Science, Cardiff School of Health Science, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff Campus, CF5 2YB Cardiff, Wales
United Kingdom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/nah.NAH_21_17

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Purpose: The current study was aimed at understanding the patterns in the social representation of loud music reported by young adults in different countries. Materials and Methods: The study included a sample of 534 young adults (18–25 years) from India, Iran, Portugal, United Kingdom, and United States. Participants were recruited using a convince sampling, and data were collected using the free association task. Participants were asked to provide up to five words or phrases that come to mind when thinking about “loud music.” The data were first analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. This was followed by quantitative cluster analysis and chi-square analysis. Results: The content analysis suggested 19 main categories of responses related to loud music. The cluster analysis resulted in for main clusters, namely: (1) emotional oriented perception; (2) problem oriented perception; (3) music and enjoyment oriented perception; and (4) positive emotional and recreation-oriented perception. Country of origin was associated with the likelihood of participants being in each of these clusters. Conclusion: The current study highlights the differences and similarities in young adults’ perception of loud music. These results may have implications to hearing health education to facilitate healthy listening habits.


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