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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2023
Volume 25 | Issue 117
Page Nos. 71-119

Online since Friday, May 12, 2023

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The Effect of Noise Exposure on Hearing Function and Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials p. 71
Ozgenur Cetinbag-Kuzu, Hande Bahadir, Enis Alpin Guneri, Arif Hikmet Cimrin, Gunay Kirkim
Purpose: Exposure to noise can cause damage to both auditory and vestibular systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate how noise exposure affects the hearing and vestibular systems in individuals with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Methods: This study included 80 subjects (40 subjects with NIHL, and 40 controls), between 26 and 59 years old. For hearing assessment, pure-tone audiometry, extended high-frequency audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex threshold, and distortion product otoacoustic emission tests were used; for vestibular assessment, the cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials tests were used. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in 3 to 6 kHz frequency thresholds; in extended high-frequency audiometry tests, there were also significant differences between groups at all frequencies from 9.5 to 16 kHz. The cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials thresholds were significantly higher and N1-P1 amplitudes were significantly lower in the NIHL group. Conclusion: Noise can lead to damage to both auditory and vestibular functions. Therefore, audiological assessments and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials could be clinically useful for examining patients with NIHL.
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Noise Sensitivity in Patients with Schizophrenia p. 76
Zahra Ghazavi, Omran Davarinejad, Foad Jasimi, Youkhabeh Mohammadian, Kheirollah Sadeghi
Background: The aim of this study was to compare noise sensitivity (NS) in schizophrenic individuals with/without hallucinations and healthy individuals. Procedure: A retrospective (causal–comparative) study was conducted in three groups: (i) A group of individuals with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations (14 participants), (ii) a group of schizophrenic individuals without auditory hallucinations (14 participants) selected by purposive sampling and (iii) a control group (19 participants) selected by convenience sampling. Schutte’s Noise Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to measure NS. Analysis of Variance and Kruskal–Wallis tests were applied to compare the three groups. All the analyses were done using SPSS-20. Results: ANOVA results indicated that the groups were significantly different in terms of NS (p<0.001) and that NS was higher in groups whose participants were schizophrenic (119.64 and 102.36, respectively, in groups with or without auditory hallucinations) compared to that in the group with healthy individuals (94.79). Conclusions: On the basis of this study, it became evident that patients with schizophrenia are more sensitive to noise than healthy individuals. The results also indicated that schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations are more sensitive to noise than those without auditory hallucinations.
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The Impact of Aircraft Noise on the Cognitive Function of Elementary School Students in Korea p. 83
Kiook Baek, Chulyong Park, Joon Sakong
Background: This study evaluated the effects of chronic exposure to aircraft noise on the cognitive functions of Korean elementary school students attending an elementary school around a military airfield and clarified the relationship between noise exposure and cognitive functions. Methods: Five schools with average weight equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (WECPNL) of ≥75 dB were selected from four regions in Korea. Each of these schools was matched with a non-exposed school. The Korean Intelligence Test Primary (KIT-P) was used to measure the scores of four subcategories and the intelligence quotient (IQ). The noise exposure groups were divided into high-exposure (WECPNL ≥ 80 dB) and medium-exposure (75 ≤ WECPNL < 80) groups. The period of exposure during the school year was collected. A linear mixed model, with matched pairs of schools, was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the multivariable linear mixed model adjusted by possible confounders, the reasoning score was significantly lower in the high-exposure group of students than in the no-exposure group. Other scores and IQ were lower in the noise exposure groups, although these were not statistically significant. The duration of exposure did not show a significant relationship with cognitive functions. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to noise from military airfields may influence the cognitive functions, thereby reducing the learning performance of Korean children.
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The Role of Noise Annoyance and Noise Sensitivity in the Effect of Aircraft Noise on Self-Reported Health: The Results of the DEBATS Longitudinal Study in France p. 92
Minon'tsikpo Kossi Kodji, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Bernard Laumon, Anne-Sophie Evrard
Background: Transportation noise seems to impair self-reported health status (SRHS). However, only a few studies have considered the role of noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in this deleterious effect. This study aims investigating mediator and moderator roles of noise annoyance and noise sensitivity. Methods: In 2013, the DEBATS longitudinal study included 1244 participants aged over 18 years and living around three French airports. These participants were followed up in 2015 and 2017. They self-reported their perceived health status, aircraft noise annoyance, and their noise sensitivity via a questionnaire during the three visits. Noise maps were used to estimate aircraft noise levels at the facade of participants’ residence. Generalized linear mixed models with a random intercept at the participant level were used. Results: Aircraft noise levels were associated with severe annoyance. Severe annoyance tent to be associated with impaired SRHS. Aircraft noise levels were associated with impaired SRHS only in men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.02, 2.11], for a 10-dBA Lden increase in aircraft noise levels) with a weaker association adjusted for annoyance (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = [0.94, 1.98]). The association was stronger in men who reported high noise sensitivity (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = [0.92, 3.70], versus OR = 1.39, 95% CI = [0.90, 2.14], for men who were not highly sensitive to noise). Conclusion: From our results, the deleterious effect of aircraft noise on SRHS could be mediated by noise annoyance and moderated by noise sensitivity. Further studies using causal inference methods are needed for identifying causal effect of exposure, mediator, and moderator.
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Development of an Arabic “Command in Noise” Hearing Test to Assess Fitness for Duty p. 104
Iman Rawas, Daniel Rowan, Hannah Semeraro, Stefan Bleeck, Afaf Bamanie
Objective: The goal is to implement the developed speech material in a hearing test to assess auditory fitness for duty (AFFD), specifically in areas where the intelligibility of spoken commands is essential. Design: In study 1, a speech corpus with equal intelligibility was constructed using constant stimuli to test each target word’s psychometric functions. Study 2 used an adaptive interleaving procedure to maximize equalized terms. Study 3 used Monte Carlo simulations to determine speech test accuracy. Study sample: Study 1 (n = 24) and study 2 (n = 20) were completed by civilians with normal hearing. Study 3 ran 10,000 simulations per condition across various conditions varying in slopes and speech recognition thresholds (SRTs). Results: Studies 1 and 2 produced three 8-word wordlists. The mean, standard deviation in dB SNR is −13.1 1.2 for wordlist 1, −13.7 1.6 for wordlist 2, and −13.7 1.3 for wordlist 3, with word SRTs within 3.4 dB SNR. Study 3 revealed that a 6 dB SNR range is appropriate for equally understandable speech using a closed-set adaptive technique. Conclusion: The developed speech corpus may be used in an AFFD measure. Concerning the homogeneity of the speech in noise test material, care should be taken when generalizing and using ranges and standard deviations from multiple tests.
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Association between Subjective Hearing Impairment and Cognitive Status among Korean Elderly p. 113
Sujin Lee, Jae Ho Chung
Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of subjectively assessed hearing impairment on cognitive function in elderly Koreans living in the community. Methods: In the 2020 Survey of Living Conditions and Welfare Needs of Korean Older Persons Survey, 9920 subjects (5949 females; 60%) aged 65 or more years were examined. Using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE-KC), cognitive function was evaluated. To investigate the relationship between hearing impairment and cognitive status, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for multiple confounding variables (socioeconomic, health behavior, psychological factors, and functional status). There were 2297 participants in the hearing impairment group (23.2%) and 7623 subjects in the no-hearing impairment group. Results: Cognitive impairment was significantly higher in the hearing impairment group (37.2%) compared to the no-hearing impairment group (27.5%). After adjusting for confounders, hearing impairment was significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR] 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.35) compared to no-hearing impairment group. Conclusions: Although a cross-cectional design of this study does not allow a causal reasoning, our findings show a significant association between the hearing loss of older adults and their cognitive impairment. Hearing impairment should be regarded as a risk factor for cognitive disorders.
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