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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2006| July-September  | Volume 8 | Issue 32  
 
 
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ARTICLES
Salivary chromogranin A as a measure of stress response to noise
Masamitsu Miyakawa, Toshihito Matsui, Hiroki Kishikawa, Rumiko Murayama, Iwao Uchiyama, Toshihiro Itoh, Takahiko Yoshida
July-September 2006, 8(32):108-113
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.33951  PMID:17704601
Effects of noise on the secretion of salivary chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a substitute measure of catecholamines, were investigated in a laboratory experiment. This study included 20 male subjects with normal hearing; their ages ranged from 21 to 24 years. Prior to the experiment, the subjects were asked to answer a questionnaire containing the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Weinstein's noise sensitivity scale. White noise at 90 dB was presented to the subjects for 15 min with 15-minute-rest periods before and after noise exposure. It was shown that salivary CgA levels increased significantly during noise exposure and decreased immediately after it (Friedman's test, p = 0.001, two tailed). This result suggests that salivary CgA can be used to measure the stress response to noise. Furthermore, individual differences in the change in salivary CgA levels were discussed in relation to the subjective responses of the participants to the questionnaire. Some subjects showed prolonged elevation in the salivary CgA levels and the others showed immediate recovery or no effects. These individual differences correlated with the score on the somatic symptoms in GHQ-28; this implies that the score on the somatic symptoms in GHQ-28 could be a measure of physiological sensitivity to noise.
  25 7,751 428
Effects of industrial solvents on hearing and balance: A review
Lyn Hodgkinson, Deepak Prasher
July-September 2006, 8(32):114-133
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.33952  PMID:17704602
Industrial hearing loss has generally been associated with noise exposure, but there is a growing awareness that industrial solvents can have an adverse effect on the auditory and vestibular systems in man. Both animal experiments and human studies point to an ototoxic effect of industrial solvents, as well as some central auditory and vestibular disturbances. This review examines the research from the last four decades in an attempt to get an overview of the available evidence. Research shows that industrial solvents are ototoxic in rats. The majority of the solvents studied cause a loss of auditory sensitivity in the mid-frequencies in rats, affecting outer hair cells in the order OHC 3 > OHC 2 > OHC 1 . Inner hair cells are generally unaffected. Spiral ganglion cells are most vulnerable to trichloroethylene. Simultaneous exposure to solvents and noise results in a synergistic effect; the pattern of trauma mirrors that due to solvent exposure rather than noise, but is more enhanced. There is a critical level when synergy occurs. The effects of solvents on the vestibular system are neurotoxic and influence the vestibulo-oculomotor system in both animals and humans; humans also present with problems in postural sway. There is a strong suggestion from human studies that solvents are ototoxic in man, but findings show that both the peripheral and central auditory pathways can be affected. Hearing losses can be in the high frequency region or can affect a wider range of frequencies. Hearing loss and balance disturbances can occur at levels below permitted levels of exposure. The synergistic effect of combined exposure to solvents and noise has also been noted in humans, resulting in greater hearing losses than would be expected from exposure to noise and solvents alone. The findings from both human and animal studies indicate that exposure to industrial solvents or to industrial solvents and noise can have an adverse effect on hearing and balance. The implications for industry and hearing conservation are far reaching.
  18 18,485 612
An estimation of annoyance due to various public modes of transport in Delhi
Amit Prakash, Kaprosang Joute, VK Jain
July-September 2006, 8(32):101-107
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.33950  PMID:17704600
Measurements of noise levels associated with different types of vehicles plying the roads in Delhi were made. From the data, noise level indices L 10 , L 90 and Leq were determined. In addition, spectra of noise for different vehicles at 1- octave band frequencies were also obtained. The time-averaged noise spectra reveal that the noise intensities are significantly higher in the frequency range of 0.5 kHz to 2 kHz for all types of vehicles. Perceived noise levels (PNdB) and the total noisiness measured on NOY scale indicate that rural transport vehicles (RTVs) are most annoying, followed by buses, auto-rickshaws and taxis.
  5 6,610 210