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   2015| March-April  | Volume 17 | Issue 75  
    Online since March 16, 2015

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ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014
Mathias Basner, Mark Brink, Abigail Bristow, Yvonne de Kluizenaar, Lawrence Finegold, Jiyoung Hong, Sabine A Janssen, Ronny Klaeboe, Tony Leroux, Andreas Liebl, Toshihito Matsui, Dieter Schwela, Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska, Patrik Sörqvist
March-April 2015, 17(75):57-82
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153373  PMID:25774609
The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.
  21,274 48 25
Hand dryer noise in public restrooms exceeds 80 dBA at 10 ft (3 m)
Shari Salzhauer Berkowitz
March-April 2015, 17(75):90-92
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153394  PMID:25774611
High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined the intensity (in dBA) of the noise produced by the air dryers in campus restrooms. Hand dryer peak and average noise was measured with a sound level meter at 2.5 ft, 5 ft, and 10 ft from the dryer. Noise measurements did not decrease as predicted by the inverse-square law, probably because of the reverberative surfaces found in the restrooms. The small sample of hand dryers tested was mostly found to be producing more noise than the manufacturer claimed they would; indeed, none of the dryers would be safe for an 8-h workday exposure. While hand dryers do reduce paper trash, they pose as a different sort of hazard to our environment and population.
  13,724 23 1
Tualang honey improves memory performance and decreases depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to loud noise stress
Khairunnuur Fairuz Azman, Rahimah Zakaria, CheBadariah AbdAziz, Zahiruddin Othman, Badriya Al-Rahbi
March-April 2015, 17(75):83-89
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153388  PMID:25774610
Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects.
  5,732 23 12
Response of cardiac autonomic modulation after a single exposure to musical auditory stimulation
Lucas L Ferreira, Luiz Carlos M Vanderlei, Heraldo L Guida, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, David M Garner, Franciele M Vanderlei, Celso Ferreira, Vitor E Valenti
March-April 2015, 17(75):108-115
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153402  PMID:25774614
The acute effects after exposure to different styles of music on cardiac autonomic modulation assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis have not yet been well elucidated. We aimed to investigate the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation in women after exposure to musical auditory stimulation of different styles. The study was conducted on 30 healthy women aged between 18 years and 30 years. We did not include subjects having previous experience with musical instruments and those who had an affinity for music styles. The volunteers remained at rest for 10 min and were exposed to classical baroque (64-84 dB) and heavy metal (75-84 dB) music for 10 min, and their HRV was evaluated for 30 min after music cessation. We analyzed the following HRV indices: Standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of normal-to-normal 50 (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. SDNN, LF in absolute units (ms 2 ) and normalized (nu), and LF/HF ratio increased while HF index (nu) decreased after exposure to classical baroque music. Regarding the heavy metal music style, it was observed that there were increases in SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, and LF (ms 2 ) after the musical stimulation. In conclusion, the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation after exposure to auditory stimulation with music featured an increased global activity of both systems for the two musical styles, with a cardiac sympathetic modulation for classical baroque music and a cardiac vagal tone for the heavy metal style.
  5,595 22 4
Is there an association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension? A meta-analysis of 16784 participants
Di Huang, XuPing Song, Qi Cui, Jinhui Tian, Quan Wang, Kehu Yang
March-April 2015, 17(75):93-97
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153400  PMID:25774612
To determine if aircraft noise exposure causes an increased incidence of hypertension among residents near airports. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched without any restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The pooled ORs were calculated using both the fixed effects model and random effects model. All analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We examined five studies, comprising a total of 16,784 residents. The overall OR for hypertension in residents with aircraft noise exposure was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.14-2.33), and one of our included studies showed that there was no evidence that aircraft noise is a risk factor for hypertension in women. According to our subgroup analysis, the summary OR for the incidence was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.85-2.02) with I2 of 80.7% in women and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.15-1.60) with moderate heterogeneity in men. The pooled OR for the incidence of hypertension in residents aged over 55 years and under 55 years was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.27) with no heterogeneity and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.33-2.39) with I2 of 29.4%, respectively. The present meta-analysis suggests that aircraft noise could contribute to the prevalence of hypertension, but the evidence for a relationship between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive because of limitations in study populations, exposure characterization, and adjustment for important confounders.
  5,444 34 9
Occupational noise and myocardial infarction: Considerations on the interrelation of noise with job demands
Norbert Kersten, Eva Backé
March-April 2015, 17(75):116-122
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153403  PMID:25774615
The present analysis aims to differentiate the association of noise on myocardial infarction (MI) by job specific demands using International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)-88 codes as a proxy. Data of a German case-control study were supplemented by job descriptions (indicated by ISCO-88). It was examined whether the demands in the various occupational groups modify the effect of noise. Noise and occupational groups are combined to form new exposure categories. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to identify effects of combined job-noise categories. For the highest noise range (95-124 dB(A)) we found a significant odds-ratio (OR) of 2.18 (confidence interval [CI] 0.95 = 1.17-4.05) independent of the profession. Some interesting results were found indicating ISCO groups with possible risk. In men, noticeable effects for the exposure category between 62 dB(A) and 84 dB(A) are calculated in the group of legislators and senior officials (ISCO-group 11; OR=1.93; CI 0.95 = 0.50-7.42), the group consisting of life science and health professionals (ISCO-group 22; OR=2.18; CI 0.95 = 0.36-13.1), the group of life science and health associate professionals (ISCO-group 32; OR = 2.03; CI 0.95 = 0.50-8.24), and the group of "precision, handicraft, printing, and related trades workers" (ISCO-group 73; OR = 2.67; CI 0.95 = 0.54-13.0). In the exposure range of 85-94 dB(A), high ORs are calculated for "skilled agricultural, fishery, and forestry workers" (ISCO-group 6; OR = 4.31; CI 0.95 = 0.56-33.3). In women, there are high (nonsignificant) ORs in ISCO-group 1 (OR = 2.43; CI 0.95 = 0.12-50.0), ISCO-group 2 (OR = 1.80; CI 0.95 = 0.31-10.5), and ISCO-group 9 (OR = 2.45; CI 0.95 = 0.63-9.51) for a noise exposure between 62 dB(A) and 84 dB(A). When investigating noise at the workplace in relation to cardiovascular diseases it is important to take the specific requirements of a job into account. Thus, work tasks with high health risks can be identified that helps to develop appropriate prevention strategies.
  4,816 19 4
Fit for the frontline? Identification of mission-critical auditory tasks (MCATs) carried out by infantry and combat-support personnel
Hannah D Semeraro, Zoë L Bevis, Daniel Rowan, Rachel M van Besouw, Adrian J Allsopp
March-April 2015, 17(75):98-107
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153401  PMID:25774613
The ability to listen to commands in noisy environments and understand acoustic signals, while maintaining situational awareness, is an important skill for military personnel and can be critical for mission success. Seventeen auditory tasks carried out by British infantry and combat-support personnel were identified through a series of focus groups conducted by Bevis et al. For military personnel, these auditory tasks are termed mission-critical auditory tasks (MCATs) if they are carried in out in a military-specific environment and have a negative consequence when performed below a specified level. A questionnaire study was conducted to find out which of the auditory tasks identified by Bevis et al. satisfy the characteristics of an MCAT. Seventy-nine British infantry and combat-support personnel from four regiments across the South of England participated. For each auditory task participants indicated: 1) the consequences of poor performance on the task, 2) who performs the task, and 3) how frequently the task is carried out. The data were analysed to determine which tasks are carried out by which personnel, which have the most negative consequences when performed poorly, and which are performed the most frequently. This resulted in a list of 9 MCATs (7 speech communication tasks, 1 sound localization task, and 1 sound detection task) that should be prioritised for representation in a measure of auditory fitness for duty (AFFD) for these personnel. Incorporating MCATs in AFFD measures will help to ensure that personnel have the necessary auditory skills for safe and effective deployment on operational duties.
  4,534 21 1
Long-term noise exposure and the risk for type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis: Erratum
Angel Mario Dzhambov
March-April 2015, 17(75):123-123
DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.153404  PMID:25774616
  3,201 25 1