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   2019| July-August  | Volume 21 | Issue 101  
    Online since July 25, 2020

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
The combined effects of occupational exposure to noise and other risk factors − a systematic review
Rostam Golmohammadi, Ebrahim Darvishi
July-August 2019, 21(101):125-141
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_4_18  PMID:32719300
Purpose: Noise-induced health effects exacerbate by many other risk factors. This systematic review aims at shedding light on the combined effects of co-exposure to occupational noise and other factors. Material and Methods: A literature search in Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar, with appropriate keywords on combined effects of occupational noise, and co-exposure to noise and other factors, revealed 7928 articles which were screened by two researchers. A total of 775 articles were reviewed in full text. We found 149 articles that were relevant and had sufficient quality for analysis. Results: We identified 16 risk factors that exacerbate occupational noise-induced health effects. These factors were classified into four groups: chemical (carbon monoxide (CO), solvents, heavy metals, and other chemicals), physical (lighting, heat, vibration, and cold), personal (age, gender, genetics, smoking, medication, contextual diseases) and occupational (workload and shift work). Hearing loss, hypertension, reduced performance, and cardiovascular strains, are the most important risk factors combined effects due to concurrent exposure to noise and other risk factors. Conclusion: Evidences of combined effects of solvents, vibration, heavy metals, CO, smoking, chemicals, aging, heat, and shiftwork were respectively stronger than for other factors. Most of the studies have investigated only the combined effects of risk factors on hearing, and the evidence for non-auditory effects is still limited, and more studies are warranted. Therefore, in the Hearing Conservation Programs, besides noise, aggravating factors of noise effects should also be taken into account.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Analysis of urban road traffic noise exposure of residential buildings in hong kong over the past decade
Chenzhi Cai, Cheuk Ming Mak, Xuhui He
July-August 2019, 21(101):142-154
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_36_18  PMID:32719301
Introduction: With the development of transportation system and the economy, the rapidly increasing number of automobiles brings the associated problem of road traffic noise, especially in metropolitan and densely populated high-rise cities like Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, approximately one million people are affected by severe road traffic noise. Excessive noise exposure is hazardous to the health and wellbeing of people and therefore has drawn progressively more attention in Hong Kong. The Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) has been adopted as the sole tool to evaluate road traffic noise in the form of descriptor LA10. The accuracy and suitability of the CRTN method for predicting road traffic noise in Hong Kong were evaluated in this study by comparing the prediction results and measured traffic noise levels. The results show that the CRTN method was able to provide adequate predictions with correlation coefficients of 0.8032 and 0.7626 between the predicted and measured LA10 for 2007 and 2017 respectively. The predicted traffic noise levels on different floors of seven selected residential buildings in 2017 were compared with those predictions for the same buildings in 2007. The worsening traffic noise exposure in these residential buildings was analysed and some suggestions and counter-measures to alleviate the traffic noise problems are put forward. Since the situation of Hong Kong is an example of what may happen in other cities, the present longitudinal study of the road traffic noise in Hong Kong hopes to contribute to a better urban acoustic environment worldwide. Context: Excessive noise exposure is hazardous to the health and wellbeing of people and therefore has drawn progressively more attention in Hong Kong. The urban road traffic noise exposure of residential buildings in Hong Kong over the past decade has been analysed. Aims: This study aims to assess the road traffic noise exposure of residential buildings over the past decade. Settings and Design: Measurements of traffic noise levels at some selected residential buildings were first conducted in 2007, and then repeated at the same buildings in 2017. Material and Methods: The CRTN was adopted to predict the traffic noise levels based on the recorded traffic flow data. Results: The exposure of these buildings to road traffic noise is higher in 2017 than in 2007. The study illustrates that the deterioration of the urban acoustic environment may not be caused by an increased total number of vehicles, but that heavy vehicles are dominantly responsible for the increased traffic noise levels. Restriction of vehicle velocity for urban street canyons is useless for road traffic noise control. Conclusions: This study shows the deterioration of traffic noise levels is mainly due to the increased heavy vehicles instead of the increased total number of vehicles. The alleviation of traffic noise levels by velocity restriction may not be obvious for urban street canyons and may only work with a certain velocity range.
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Deductive development and validation of a questionnaire to assess sensitivity to very low and very high frequency sounds: SISUS-Q (Sensitivity to Infra-Sound and Ultra-Sound Questionnaire)
Leonie Ascone, Stefan Uppenkamp, Oliver Behler, Ben Lineton, Elisa Burke, Christian Koch, Simone Kühn, Gregor Geršak
July-August 2019, 21(101):173-182
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_46_19  PMID:32719305
Objective: Auditory research and complaints about environmental noise indicate that there exists a significant, small subgroup within the population which is sensitive towards infra- and low-frequency or ultra- and high-frequency sounds (ILF/UHF). This paper reports on the development, factorization and validation of measures of sensitivity towards frequencies outside the common hearing range. Design: A multinational, cross-sectional survey study was run. Principal component analyses and exploratory factor analyses were conducted in a sample of 267 Europeans (from the UK, Slovenia, and Germany). Results: The factor analyses suggested that ILF versus UHF sensitivity constitute different factors, each characterized by sensory perception, stress-responsivity, and behavioral avoidance. A third factor comprising beliefs of dangerousness of ILF and UHF emerged. The factors explained 72% of the variance. The factor-solution was replicated separately for the English (n = 98) and German (n = 169) versions of the questionnaire (Slovenians and UK residents filled out the English version). Acceptable to excellent reliability was found. ILF and UHF sensitivity were moderately related to noise sensitivity in the normal hearing range, suggesting the new measures are not redundant. Correlations with psychiatric and somatic symptoms were small to moderate. ILF sensitivity correlated with neuroticism (small effect) and daytime sleepiness (moderate effect). ILF and UHF sensitivity were related to agreeableness (small effects). Overall, the novel ILF and UHF sensitivity scales seems to provide a solid tool for conducting further research on the role of sensitivity concerning adverse effects of ILF and UHF sound (e.g. health outcomes, annoyance ratings). The questionnaire consortium recommends using the new scales in combination with established measures of normal hearing range sensitivity.
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Does radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy impair hearing function in patients with plantar fasciitis?
Serap Bulut Cobden, Adem Cobden, Yalkin Camurcu, Serda Duman, Hanifi Ucpunar, Hakan Dagistan
July-August 2019, 21(101):169-172
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_6_19  PMID:32719304
Background: Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (r-ESWT) is commonly used for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Previously in the urology literature, some studies reported hearing impairment after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. However, there is no study that evaluates the possible side effects of r-ESWT on the hearing function of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of r-ESWT on the pure tone audiometry of the patients on whom r-ESWT was applied for chronic plantar fasciitis. Material and Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis who were treated with r-ESWT were included in this prospective case-control study. Before and after the r-ESWT application, all patients were consulted to our otolaryngology department for pure tone audiometric examination to detect any hearing impairment before and after the treatment. A control group was also constructed that consisted of patients who were admitted to our department for any complaint. Results: A total of 67 patients participated in the study. Radial ESWT group consisted of 47 patients (39 female, 8 male) with the mean age of 44.1 years. The control group consisted of 20 patients (12 female, 8 male) with the mean age of 36.9 years. We observed a 20-dB threshold shift at 8000Hz in 1 patient who had no clinical symptom. This patient had no threshold shift at the 1-month control audiometric measurement. Conclusion: According to the results acquired from this study, we can consider that r-ESWT treatment in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis has no markedly detrimental effect on the hearing function.
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The correlation between hair and eye colour and contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions
Marike Klopper, Leigh Biagio–de Jager, Bart Vinck
July-August 2019, 21(101):155-163
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_36_19  PMID:32719302
Genetics and environmental factors frequently influence individual’s susceptibility to hearing loss. It is postulated that melanin in the inner ear is related to individual’s susceptibility to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). General pigmentation in turn, suspected to be related to the amount of pigmentation in the inner ear. The amount of melanin in the inner ear is said to modulate the endocochlear potential and provide an otoprotective effect. Aim: The study aimed to determine the relationship between the contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions (CSOAE) in individuals with brown eyes and hair, and blue eyes and blond hair, and temporary emission shift (TES) after short-term noise exposure. Setting and Design: The research was conducted using a quantitative research design with a quasi-experimental repeated within the subject design to compare the CSOAE in subjects with different hair and eyes colour with TES after short-term noise exposure. Quantitative research was used to determine the relationship between the measurable variables to predict occurrence. Material and Method: The hearing sensitivity of young adults was determined by using pure tone audiometry followed by CSOAE’s and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) before listening to music for one hour individually. Pure tone audiometry and DPOAE’s were repeated after music exposure to determine the amount of TES and temporary threshold shift (TTS). Statistical Analysis used: One-way ANOVA was used during the analysis of the data obtained during this research study, in addition to, two-tailed Wilcoxon Sign Rank test and Friedman’s test. In all analyses, a 95% level of significance (P<0.05) was used. Results: No statistically significant difference between efferent suppression was measured by CSOAE’s between the participant groups. A larger TTS at 4000 Hz and TES at 2000 Hz was evident in the blue eyes and blond hair group after short-term music exposure. Conclusion: CSOAE’s were unable to predict which group of individuals were more susceptible to NIHL after short-term noise exposure.
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Distortion product oto-acoustic emission: a superior tool for hearing assessment than pure tone audiometry
Neeru Kapoor, K. V Mani, Manish Shukla
July-August 2019, 21(101):164-168
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_37_19  PMID:32719303
Objective: Hearing plays a crucial role in the performance of a soldier and is important for communication and speech processing. Service personnel are constantly exposed to high levels of noise and hence predisposed to occupational health disabilities, principally noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. NIHL is a significantly common impairment in the military and can affect the warfare performances. Parochial awareness about the effects of uproarious noise which exacerbates their hearing, acceptance rate of use of hearing protection devices and follow-up audiological tests have become the major drawback for prevention of NIHL and are less pondered upon. Method: The present study focuses on the effects of noise on the hearing of service crew operating and maintaining military equipment and explores the efficacy of DPOAE’s to substitute pure tone audiometry as a quick, easy to operate and implementable test technique for monitoring of hearing status. Results: The results suggest that DPOAE test is important and more coherent than audiometry alone for the early detection of cochlear injury due to noise from military operations and efficacious for detecting NIHL.
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