Figure 3: Linear structure equation model showing the connections between sensations of loudness, hearing impairments and the employment of hearing protectors: standardized estimation values. Round shapes: latent, not directly observed variables. Square shapes: manifest, observed variables. Arrows: directions of the effects of the latent variables. e1-e10/res1 and res2: measuring errors/residues. Values to the right and above the manifest variables: communality and/or indicator reliability (portion of the variance of the variables explained by the factor). Values of the arrows leading away from the latent variables: loading of the variables observed (correlations of the variables with the factor). Double-headed arrows: connections between the measuring errors of the relevant constructs.