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Figure 5 :(a) The average number of awakenings additionally induced by aircraft noise per year is shown depending on Lnight,outside. Altogether, 10 million eight-hour nights with 1 to 200 (1, 2, 3,…, 200) noise events randomly drawn from the DLR field study[24] were simulated. The lines represent (from below to above) 2.5, 25, 50, 75, and 97.5 percentiles. (b) The average number of awakenings additionally induced by aircraft noise per year is shown depending on Lnight,outside and on the number of aircraft noise events. Altogether, 600,000 eight-hour nights with 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 noise events randomly drawn from the DLR field study[24] were simulated. Black lines represent median number of additional awakenings. Numbers to the right of the black lines indicate the number of noise events per night contributing to Lnight,outside. The red line connects mid-points of each “number of events” category. Both (a) and (b) - For each category of number of noise events per night 50,000 simulations were run, and for each simulation Lnight,outside was calculated (based on outside sound pressure levels measured 2 m in front of the window, with 69.3% tilted windows, 18% closed windows, and 12.6% open windows) as well as the number of additional aircraft noise induced awakenings (based on inside sound pressure levels measured near pillow position) according to equation (2) in.[24] There were 8,170 eligible noise events from 135 nights at 32 measuring locations. The grey shaded areas represent Night Noise Guideline (NNG) Lnight,outside ranges 30-40, 40-55, and >55 dB. In an eight-hour undisturbed night of a healthy sleeper, on average 24 spontaneous EEG awakenings (as defined by Rechtschaffen and Kales[10]) can be observed (equaling 8,760 spontaneous awakenings per year). (Reprinted from Appl Acoust 71(6) 2010, 518-22, Basner M, Müller U, Griefahn B, Practical guidance for risk assessment of traffic noise effects on sleep, Copyright 2010, with permission from Elsevier)

Figure 5 :(a) The average number of awakenings additionally induced by aircraft noise per year is shown depending on Lnight,outside. Altogether, 10 million eight-hour nights with 1 to 200 (1, 2, 3,…, 200) noise events randomly drawn from the DLR field study[24] were simulated. The lines represent (from below to above) 2.5, 25, 50, 75, and 97.5 percentiles. (b) The average number of awakenings additionally induced by aircraft noise per year is shown depending on Lnight,outside and on the number of aircraft noise events. Altogether, 600,000 eight-hour nights with 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 noise events randomly drawn from the DLR field study[24] were simulated. Black lines represent median number of additional awakenings. Numbers to the right of the black lines indicate the number of noise events per night contributing to Lnight,outside. The red line connects mid-points of each “number of events” category. Both (a) and (b) - For each category of number of noise events per night 50,000 simulations were run, and for each simulation Lnight,outside was calculated (based on outside sound pressure levels measured 2 m in front of the window, with 69.3% tilted windows, 18% closed windows, and 12.6% open windows) as well as the number of additional aircraft noise induced awakenings (based on inside sound pressure levels measured near pillow position) according to equation (2) in.[24] There were 8,170 eligible noise events from 135 nights at 32 measuring locations. The grey shaded areas represent Night Noise Guideline (NNG) Lnight,outside ranges 30-40, 40-55, and >55 dB. In an eight-hour undisturbed night of a healthy sleeper, on average 24 spontaneous EEG awakenings (as defined by Rechtschaffen and Kales[10]) can be observed (equaling 8,760 spontaneous awakenings per year). (Reprinted from Appl Acoust 71(6) 2010, 518-22, Basner M, Müller U, Griefahn B, Practical guidance for risk assessment of traffic noise effects on sleep, Copyright 2010, with permission from Elsevier)